The Resource Library is an up-to-date source for information and resources on the practice of landscape conservation, and is intended to serve as a knowledge base that empowers practitioners to build capacity within the field.
The Library is structured around major themes relating to the practice of landscape conservation – use the dropdown menu to sort access resources within any given theme. Alternatively, search the library directly by keyword.
Landscape Conservation Collaboration: A White Paper
Author: Association of Fish and Wildlife AgenciesDetails
In 2018, a working group of the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, which represents North America’s state fish and wildlife agencies, developed a white paper on landscape conservation. The white paper identifies key challenges and lessons learned for landscape conservation, and emerged from the AFWA working group that was convened to examine existing landscape partnerships and their governance structures, commonalities of success, approaches, partner roles and other attributes. Beginning first at a regional level, the white paper reviews efforts in the Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, and Western regions to understand key drivers, challenges, and successes for collaboration in each region. A broader discussion across regional contexts follows, and the white paper concludes by identifying opportunities and next steps.
The Conservation Finance Toolkit is a resource explaining tools and techniques available to conservation-finance practitioners. Tools covered vary from the simple to the complex. Each writeup contains an example of the technique in practice.
LCC Network Conservation Science Plan
Landscape Conservation Cooperative NetworkDetails
The LCC Network Conservation Science Plan (Science Plan) advances a strategic conservation framework to identify and describe the common science and technical priorities and practices that transcend individual LCC geographies and support the LCC Network’s vision and mission. An important intent of the Science Plan is to add value to individual LCC efforts and provide mechanisms for aligning these efforts across multiple spatial scales.
New Policies with the Potential to Improve Wildlife Corridors and Ecological Connectivity
Author: Robert AmentDetails
This report is a compilation of federal and state policies that have direct or indirect implications for wildlife corridors and ecological connectivity conservation. It is a continuation of new federal policies that were first reported in 2012, The Obama Administration’s Progress on Federal Policies for Wildlife Corridors and Ecological Connectivity Conservation: January 2009 through December 2012 (online at: http://largelandscapes.org/media/publications/Obama-Admin–Progress-on-Federal-Policies-for-Wildlife- Corridors2.pdf). This report provides a broad set of policy-setting activities, such as legislation, executive orders, secretarial orders, strategies, and memoranda, by the executive or legislative branches of state or federal governments.
Conservation Finance: Moving beyond donor funding toward an investor-driven approach
Authors: Fabian Huwyler, Jürg Käppeli, Katharina Serafimova, Eric Swanson, and John TobinDetails
To preserve the health of natural ecosystems, a significantly larger amount of capital investment is required than the sums currently being allocated to conservation. Private sector investment is needed, not to replace but to supplement traditional sources of conservation capital such as public funding or philanthropy, which have been impacted by the global economic downturn. Against this backdrop, WWF and Credit Suisse have joined forces in the area of conservation finance to iden- tify the conditions needed to attract and redirect private capital toward conservation.
This report shows that there are many unexploited private sector investment opportunities to increase conservation finance and deliver maximum conservation impacts while, at the same time, generating returns for investors. In order to develop appropriate financing structures and ensure that private sector conservation finance results in measurable conservation outcomes, financial institutions and non-governmental organizations must experiment and define their respective roles and approaches. If both sides concentrate on their main areas of expertise – with banks focusing on the alignment of capital resources, risks, and maturities, while NGOs identify measures to protect the natural environment – we can create a new opportunity for collaboration that will help to preserve natural capital for future generations. Provided it delivers measurable results, investor-driven conservation finance can create powerful incentives for truly sustainable development.
Adapting to Climate Change: Guidance for protected area managers and planners
Authors: John E. Gross, James E.M. Watson, Leigh A. Welling, and Stephen WoodleyDetails
The world’s climate is changing rapidly and protected areas are an increasingly important component of national and international climate change adaptation strategies. These guidelines articulate essential elements for adaptation planning and implementation, and it describes additional resources that site managers can use right away.
Planning for Connectivity: A guide to connecting and conserving wildlife within and beyond America’s national forests
Authors: Jonathan Haber and Peter NelsonDetails
Planning for Connectivity is a product of the Center for Large Landscape Conservation, Defenders of Wildlife, Wildlands Network and Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. This guide focuses on requirements established under the National Forest System land management planning rule to manage for ecological connectivity on national forest lands and facilitate connectivity on planning acrosss land ownerships. The purpose of the guide and its parent publication, Planning for Diversity, is to help people inside and outside of the Forest Service who are working on forest plan revisions navigate these complex diversity and connectivity requirements.
Resilient and Connected Landscapes for Terrestrial Conservation
Authors: Mark G. Anderson, Analie Barnett, Melissa Clark, Arlene Olivero Sheldon, John Prince and Barbara VickeryDetails
This report by The Nature Conservancy brings together resilience, permeability, and diversity to develop a connected network of sites that both represents the full suite of geophysical settings and has the connections and networks necessary to support the continued rearrangement of species in response to change.
Check out TNC’s Resilient and Connected Landscapes web-platform.
Conservation by Design: A strategic Framework for Mission Success
The Nature ConservancyDetails
This report lays out the adaptive management cycle that The Nature Conservancy has adopted to integrate analyses of where to work and how to accomplish its work. The report highlights the interdependence of social and natural systems, and aims to create virtuous cycles between people and nature within those integrated systems. Presented as a guide to practitioners, the principles of TNC’s Conservation by Design approach and uses case studies to bring these principles to life.
Also see TNC’s Conservation by Design web-platform
A web-based resource maintained by Conservation Corridor, this toolbox contains a catalogue of nearly 20 programs and tools for designing and working with corridors, a database of technical and peer-reviewed literature, and links to additional web-based resources.
A web-based decision support guide managed by Conservation Corridor. Are you looking for a tool or program to help you design, implement, and/or manage corridors and connectivity in the landscape? Our Connectivity Tool Decision Guide is aimed at guiding you towards the most appropriate tool to use for your specific project.
It is often the case that multiple tools are needed to more accurately address your questions, so it may be beneficial to work through the Decision Guide more than once. Keep in mind that this is meant to be only a suggestion, and finding the most appropriate tool(s) to use is often determined by multiple factors that may be outside the scope of these questions.
Wildlife Connectivity: Fundamentals for Conservation Action
Authors: Rob Ament, R. Callahan, M. McClure, M. Reuling, & G. TaborDetails
Published by the Center for Large Landscape Conservation, this report is a primer for practitioners working to advance wildlife corridor and ecological connectivity conservation. This report is intended to provide a high-level summary of the fundamentals of wildlife corridors and ecological connectivity to people engaged in management and conservation actions. We clarify the terms used to describe connectivity and provide tangible examples of different kinds of corridors and linkages and how they work. We describe the many different ways to identify places on the landscape for connectivity and wildlife corridors, including a wide range of methods, tools, and models. Finally, because policy is critical to support conservation efforts and ensure their longevity, we provide examples of existing policies that support wildlife corridors and connectivity and how they can be replicated or expanded to other jurisdictions.
Network Governance and Large Landscape Conservation
Patrick Bixler, Lynn Scarlett, and Matthew McKinney (guest editors)Details
This Special Issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment explores the application of network governance to large landscape conservation. The following article comprise the issue:
- Forging new models of natural resource governance
- Connecting people and places: the emerging role of network governance in large landscape conservation
- Understanding leadership in a world of shared problems: advancing network governance in large landscape conservation
- Sustaining the useful life of network governance: life cycles and developmental challenges
- Networks and landscapes: a framework for setting goals and evaluating performance at the large landscape scale
- Navigating governance networks for community-based conservation
- Network governance for large-scale natural resource conservation and the challenge of capture
Network Models and Lessons from Across the U.S.
Texas Hill Country Conservation NetworkDetails
Over the past few decades, networks have emerged as a powerful and widely-used approach for advancing progress in large landscape conservation and in numerous other environmental and social issue domains. This report summarizes findings from research on networks, exploring questions such as: What is a network? Why use networks? What types of networks are being used to support conservation? And what lessons can be drawn from the experiences from other networks? The findings and information in this report are drawn from a literature review of publications, articles, and websites on networks; interviews with more than 20 network experts and practitioners from across the U.S.; and review of materials related to several examples of networks focused on conservation or other environmental issues. This report includes a brief synthesis of findings related to the key questions outlined above, as well as brief profiles of six networks in the U.S. that are focused on conservation or other environmental issues.
It takes a network to tackle growth and complexity
Authors: R. Patrick Bixler, Clare Zutz, and Ashley LovellDetails
In an October 2016 article in the Stanford Social Innovation Review, the authors highlight social network analysis as an analytic tool to measure social interactions and relationships, and to visualize the nature, distribution, and structure of connections between individuals and organizations. The work highlighted in the article is centered on regional conservation efforts in the Texas Hill Country.
Sustaining Large Landscape Conservation Partnerships: Strategies for Success
Authors: The Sonoran Institute and the Bureau of Land ManagementDetails
In 2010, the Bureau of Land Management and the Sonoran Institute convened a workshop to examine trends in collaboration and community-based land management planning. This booklet shares the hard-won experience of the workshop participants, and other stories from the field, and highlights key principles for developing and sustaining landscape-scale collaborative efforts. Whether you are just starting out or have a more developed partnership, we hope that these principles and stories are helpful to you as a practitioner of large landscape conservation partnerships.
The RCP Handbook is a resource aimed at driving collaborative conservation in New England, New York, and beyond. The RCP Handbook captures the experiences of RCPs to date and outlines 10 steps identified as important to RCP success. Building upon the knowledge gained from partnerships that are part of the RCP Network, the Handbook is organized around the three fundamental stages of RCP growth (Emerging, Maturing, and Conserving).
Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy, National Park Service
Authors: Marcy Rockman, Marissa Morgan, Sonya Ziaja, George Hambrecht, and Alison Meadow.Details
The Cultural Resources Climate Change Strategy sets out a vision and broad approach for managing impacts to and learning from cultural resources under modern climate change.
Cultural resources are our record of the human experience. Collectively, these archeological sites, cultural landscapes, ethnographic resources, museum collections, and historic buildings and structures connect one generation to the next. The National Park Service is charged with conserving cultural resources so that they may be enjoyed by future generations. Climate change is adding challenges to this role, and will continue to affect cultural resources in diverse ways. At the same time, through the tangible and intangible qualities they hold, cultural resources are also part of the solution to climate change.
Conservation Biology for All
Authors: Navjot S. Sodhi and Paul R. Ehrlich (editors)Details
This book contains a series of authoritative chapters written by top names in conservation biology with the aim of disseminating cutting-edge conservation knowledge as widely as possible. Important topics such as balancing conversion and human needs, climate change, conservation planning, designing and analyzing conservation research, ecosystem services, endangered species management, extinctions, fire, habitat loss, and invasive species are covered. Numerous textboxes describing additional relevant material or case studies are also included.
Landscape Connectivity: A Call to Action
World Business Council for Sustainable DevelopmentDetails
Creating landscapes with healthy, functioning ecosystems is not only key to making progress towards the environmental targets embedded in the Sustainable Development Goals, but also to addressing multiple social and economic targets that depend partly or wholly on the bene ts that ecosystems provide to people.
Scaling Up: Landscape-scale Conservation in North America
Author: Brent A. Mitchell (editor)Details
This special issue of the George Wright Forum examines past and current practice in landscape-scale conservation; a common thread is that the National Park Service (NPS) has a role in all of our examples. Articles in the issue stress the importance of working at scale and taking an expansive, landscape view. The Landscape Conservation Cooperatives are highlighted, as is the national heritage areas program. Case studies are offered on emerging landscape conservation initiatives along the Appalachian Trail and in the Chesapeake watershed, and the Network for Landscape Conservation is highlighted as well.
A Review of the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and MedicineDetails
This review evaluates the purpose, goals, and scientific merits of the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives program within the context of similar programs, and whether the program has resulted in measurable improvements in the health of fish, wildlife, and their habitats.
Expanding Horizons: Highlights from the National Workshop on Large Landscape Conservation
Authors: Brent A. Mitchell, Brenda Barrett and Tony Hiss.Details
This report summarizes the National Workshop on Large Landscape Conservation — the first major conference on large landscape conservation in North America. Over 650 conservation professionals came together to celebrate progress and share ideas on large-scale collaborations. The report stresses a multi-disciplinary, networked approach to finding solutions that benefit human, wildlife, cultural and ecological health.
A Rural Voices for Conservation Coalition issue paper explores the emerging notion of an “all lands, all hands” collaborative approach to natural resources management in the rural west.
All Lands Management: The Role of Policy, Practice and Peer Learning
Rural Voices for Conservation CoalitionDetails
This issue paper presented by the Rural Voices for Conservation Coalition highlights the importance of working across public and private boundaries for addressing the ecological and economic challenges facing the rural West.
Protecting Nature: Landscape Scale Conservation in the United States
Presenter: Peter HowellDetails
In this webinar, Peter Howell discusses his work at the Open Space Institute, a conservation organization that focuses on landscape scale conservation throughout the Eastern United States. Through recent projects spearheaded by OSI, Howell illustrates the challenges and opportunities that landscape-scale conservation presents, and shares his insight on current trends regarding conservation in the United States.
Presented as part of the Yale Center for Business and the Environment “Nature’s Returns: Investing in Ecosystem Services” webinar series.
Conservation Practice at the Landscape Scale
Authors: Daniel N. Laven, Nora J. Mitchell, and Deane Wang (editors)Details
This thematic issue of the George Wright Forum explores the complexity, multiple benefits, and urgent challenges of landscape-scale conservation, while also identifying a wide range of elements that contribute to success. The issue describes a number of large-scale conservation initiatives. Five case studies are included, ranging from cross-international boundary work in the northern Appalachians and the Rockies to the conservation efforts of the regional watershed of the Potomac; and from the cultural heritage of America’s distinctive regional landscapes to the biodiversity of the Brazilian Atlantic forest.
Landscape-Scale Conservation: Grappling with the Green Matrix
Author: James LevittDetails
This article is a summary of the 2003 Conservation Leadership Dialogue hosted by the Lincoln Institute for Land Policy and partners. The purposes of the two-day conference were: to advance our emerging understanding of what, in concept, landscape-scale initiatives are, and why they may be necessary; to better understand how such concepts are (or are not) being realized in the field; and to identify which innovations and advances appear necessary to more fully realize such large and comprehensive initiatives.
The National Conservation Easement Database (NCED) is the first national database of conservation easement information, compiling records from land trusts and public agencies throughout the United States. This effort helps agencies, land trusts, and other organizations plan more strategically, identify opportunities for collaboration, advance public accountability, and raise the profile of what’s happening on-the-ground in the name of conservation.
Across the country, dozens of state and local governments each year vote to raise public funds in support of land conservation. The Trust For Public Land’s LandVote® Database is the premier source of information about these measures. The database brings together the most comprehensive history available for conservation finance measures that have been placed on the ballot.
Conservation Almanac: Tracking Investments in Protected Lands
The Trust for Public LandsDetails
The Conservation Almanac is a powerful online tool for analyzing and mapping federal, state, and local funding for land conservation. Launched in 2006 by The Trust for Public Land, conservationalmanac.org has become the go-to website for planners, journalists, conservationists, and researchers seeking to understand land conservation nationwide and in defined
The Language of Conservation: Updated Recommendations on How to Communicate Effectively to Build Support for Conservation
David Metz and Lori WeigelDetails
Potential Conservation Easement Provisions Designed to Explicitly Address Connectivity in the Northern Appalachians
Staying Connected InitiativeDetails
This publications puts forward sample conservation easement language designed to explicitly address issues of habitat connectivity. These provisions are intended to facilitate the drafting of connectivity language appropriate to the particular circumstances of a specific conservation easement property.
Scaling Up: Collaborative Approaches to Large Landscape Conservation
National Park ServiceDetails
A collection of brief stories from the National Park Service that demonstrates NPS’s efforts across a wide variety of parks, programs, and initiatives that advance collaborative conservation on a landscape scale.
Conservation in North America: An Analysis of Land-based Conservation in Canada, Mexico, and the United States by NAWPA Agencies
The North American Intergovernmental Committee on Cooperation for Wilderness and Protected Area ConservationDetails
Call to Action Item #22 – Scaling Up: 2011-2016 Accomplishments Report and Next Steps
Authors: Elaine F. Leslie and Kassandra HardyDetails
Call to Action Item 22 “Scaling Up,” called the NPS to “Promote large landscape conservation to support healthy ecosystems and cultural resources.” This report documents accomplishments for the 5 year period from 2011 to 2016, and lays out next steps.
Strategic Conservation Planning will help you visualize a future for your community and chart a course to realize that vision. Because your actions today will determine the parks, working farms, forests and scenic landscapes your children and grandchildren will enjoy, it pays to be careful in how you use your resources to ensure you save the right land. Strategic Conservation Planning provides you with the process and tools to identify, prioritize, pursue and protect the land that will most effectively and efficiently achieve your conservation mission.
Regional Planning for a Sustainable America: How Creative Programs are Creating Prosperity and Saving the Environment
Editor: Carl MontgomeryDetails
Regional Planning for a Sustainable America is the first book to represent the great variety of today’s effective regional planning programs, analyzing dozens of regional initiatives across North America.
The American landscape is being transformed by poorly designed, sprawling development. This sprawl–and its wasteful resource use, traffic, and pollution–does not respect arbitrary political boundaries like city limits and state borders. Yet for most of the nation, the patterns of development and conservation are shaped by fragmented, parochial local governments and property developers focused on short-term economic gain. Regional planning provides a solution, a means to manage human impacts on a large geographic scale that better matches the natural and economic forces at work. By bringing together the expertise of forty-two practitioners and academics, this book provides a practical guide to the key strategies that regional planners are using to achieve truly sustainable growth.
Report on the Conservation Leadership Dialogue on the Future of Large Landscape Conservation in America
Authors: James N. Levitt and Charles C. ChesterDetails
This report on the 2011 Conservation Leadership Dialogue on The Future of Large Landscape Conservation in America was produced based on a one-day meeting of invited guests at the Members of Congress Room in the Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. The event was a program of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and partner organizations, including the Center for Natural Resource and Environmental Policy at the University of Montana, based in Missoula, Montana; the Regional Plan Association, based in New York, New York, and the Sonoran Institute, based in Tucson, Arizona.
America’s Working Lands: Farm Bill Programs and Landscape-scale Conservation
Author: Lynn ScarlettDetails
Affirming the substantial national conservation and ecosystem benefits associated with farmlands, ranchlands, and forests, every Farm Bill since 1985 has included a section dedicated to conservation programs. During each five-year reauthorization cycle, the Farm Bill conservation provisions undergo scrutiny regarding funding, structure, goals, program effectiveness, and geographic emphasis.
This White Paper examines Farm Bill conservation programs through a large landscape conservation lens and addresses four questions: (1) how does current implementation of Farm Bill conservation programs support landscape-scale conservation? (2) what Farm Bill conservation tools are particularly useful in supporting landscape-scale conservation? (3) what challenges or barriers limit the potential of Farm Bill conservation programs to support landscape-scale conservation?; and (4) what Farm Bill conservation program administrative and legislative measures might enhance large-landscape conservation?
Landscapes: Improving Conservation Practice in the Northeast Megaregion
Authors: Regional Plan Association and America 2050Details
Buying land isn’t enough. Building parks won’t get it done. Restoring forests and wetlands by themselves is not an answer. Successful conservation requires a compre- hensive, regional approach.
Landscape conservation means looking beyond property boundaries and political jurisdictions. A holistic perspective is vital
for managing watersheds and habitats and addressing long-term issues such as climate change. With funding scarce, it’s also crucial to build partnerships that can set mutual priorities, share resources and collaborate e ectively. As the population grows and development expands, conservation needs to help shape – and not simply react to – deci- sions about land use and urban infrastructure.
is is especially true for complex geogra- phies like the 13-state Northeast megaregion. is densely developed area – stretching from Maine to West Virginia – is now home to about 72 million people. Its cities, suburbs and rural areas are expected to add an addi- tional 15 million people by the year 2040. Where these people are housed, and how their transportation and energy needs are met, will dictate whether the region’s wildlife, drinking water and other resources, farms and forests, and outdoor recreational opportuni- ties are truly lasting.
Large Landscape Conservation in the Rocky Mountain West
Authors: Matthew McKinney and Shawn JohnsonDetails
This inventory and status report explores the emergence of landscape conservation initiatives in the Rocky Mountain West. The report clarifies who is doing what with respect to landscape conservation in the region, and draws insights out of an analysis of the inventory data. The report is intended to promote, support, and advance landscape conservation throughout the Rocky Mountain West.
Working Across Boundaries: People, Nature, and Regions
Authors: Matthew McKinney and Shawn JohnsonDetails
This book is a explores the process of working across boundaries on land use and natural resources issues. The emphasis is practical: the book serves as a guide, presents a variety of principles, techniques, strategies, and concepts to help people diagnose regional problems, design an appropriate regional forum, develop and implement regional action plans, and evaluate and adapt their regional initiatives. As such, it has become a valuable resource for citizens, practitioners, and policy makers grappling with transboundary challenges who seek guidance on the process by which regional solutions can be identified and implemented.
Large Landscape Conservation: A Strategic Framework for Policy and Action
Authors: Matthew McKinney, Lynn Scarlett, and Daniel KemmisDetails
In response to increasing activity at the landscape scale, leaders from the public, private, and nongovernmental sectors participated in two national policy dialogues and many other informal discussions in 2009. This report seeks to bridge the gap between theory and practice by combining research findings and case studies with the insights emerging from these policy dialogues to synthesize what we know about landscape conservation and to identify the most important needs as we move forward.
The Science of Open Spaces: Theory and Practice for Conserving Large Complex Systems
Author: Charles G. CurtinDetails
From the days of the American Frontier, the term “open spaces” has evoked a vision of unspoiled landscapes stretching endlessly toward the horizon, of nature operating on its own terms without significant human interference. Ever since, government agencies, academia, and conservation organizations have promoted policies that treat large, complex systems with a one-size-fits-all mentality that fails to account for equally complex social dimensions of humans on the landscape. This is wrong, argues landscape ecologist and researcher Charles Curtin. We need a science-based approach that tells us how to think about our large landscapes and open spaces at temporally and spatially appropriate scales in a way that allows local landowners and other stakeholders a say in their futures.
The Science of Open Spaces turns conventional conservation paradigms on their heads, proposing that in thinking about complex natural systems, whether the arid spaces of the southwestern United States or open seas shared by multiple nations, we must go back to “first principles”–those fundamental physical laws of the universe–and build innovative conservation from the ground up based on theory and backed up by practical experience. Curtin walks us through such foundational science concepts as thermodynamics, ecology, sociology, and resilience theory, applying them to real-world examples from years he has spent designing large-scale, place-based collaborative research programs in the United States and around the world.
Compelling for not only theorists and students, but also practitioners, agency personnel, and lay readers, this book offers a thoughtful and radical departure from business-as-usual management of Earth’s dwindling wide-open spaces.